Hydronic Loops (Chilled, Heating, Condenser Water)
Hydronic Loops in commercial buildings use water to heat & cool primarily for comfort but can also be used for cooling equipment and other process applications.
The Chilled and Heating Water systems circulate water in a closed loop (not open to the atmosphere) from a Chiller or Boiler to the building to transfer heat out or into the space through Air Handlers and Fan Coil Units.
Chilled and Heating Water Loop Components
Chillers and Boilers are the primary components on the “wetside” of a hydronic system and generate the chilled or heating water temperature in the loop.
Pumps are required to circulate water throughout the loop; the number and size of the pumps will depend on the system design.
Variable Primary systems use one set of pumps to circulate through the entire loop. The pump control will depend on the control valve type (2-way vs 3-way), chiller/boiler needs (minimum DP), etc.
Primary / Secondary systems use one set of pumps to circulate through the chillers, and the second set of pumps to circulate through the building devices. The primary pumps maintain the flow and pressure drop through the chiller/boiler, and the secondary pumps can be variable speed based on the system demand.
Distributed Pumping systems use small primary pumps to circulate through the chiller/boiler and the supply side piping, and distributed pumps at all devices (AHU’s, FCUs) to pump through the devices and return piping. This design can use significantly less pump energy and have a better system delta T.
Beyond the pumps and control valves, Flow Balancing valves, Air Separators, Expansion Tanks & Makeup Valves are used in the loops to help balance and maintain the water in the loop.
Condenser Water Loops
The condenser water loop rejects heat from the chiller to the outside air through a cooling tower. Condenser pumps circulate water through the chiller and the cooling tower. Tower Tech Cooling Towers are a counterflow tower design with pressurized distribution nozzles and a flow-through basin, making it the lowest kWh/ton in the industry!